Monitoring, a way to make relatively large and accurate measurements of the earth’s surface. It is understood to determine the measurement data, the reduction and the interpretation of the data in a usable form, and, on the contrary, the establishment of the relative position and the size according to the data measurement requirements. Therefore, topography has two similar but opposite functions: (1) determining the horizontal and vertical position with existing relationship, such as that used for mapping, and (2) establishing control marks for construction or to indicate Limits of the earth.
Topography has been an essential element in the development of the human environment for so many centuries that its importance is often overlooked. It is a mandatory requirement in the planning and execution of almost all forms of construction. The survey was essential to the beginning of history, and some of the most important scientific discoveries have not been put into effect were it not for the contribution of topography. Its main modern uses are in the sectors of transport, construction, distribution of land and communications.
Except for minor details of the technique and the use of one or two minor portable instruments, topography is very similar around the world. The methods reflect the instruments manufactured mainly in Switzerland, Austria, Great Britain, the USA, Japan and Germany. Instruments made in Japan are similar to those made in the West.
It is likely that the survey has its origins in ancient Egypt. The Great Pyramid of Cheops in Giza was built around 2700 BC, 755 feet (230 meters) long and 481 feet (147 meters) high. Its quasi-perfect square and its north-south orientation confirm the command of the land of the ancient Egyptians.
The test of some sort of study boundaries of 1400 was found in the fertile valleys and plains of the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile rivers. Sumerian clay tablets show data on the extent of land and plans of cities and agricultural areas nearby. Marking the plots bound stones have been preserved. There is a representation of the extent of land on the wall of a tomb in Thebes (1400 bc) showing the head and back of the measuring props of a grain field with what appears to be a knotted rope or at intervals Regular brands. Others are shown. Two of them are heavily owned by their clothes, possibly a land supervisor and a cairns inspector.